ACUTE KIDNEY FAILURE
It is a condition which in which the kidney fails to function properly. It is characterized by a rapid lose of renal function due to kidney damage. It result in the retention of nitrogenous waste product especially urea and creatinine as well as nitrogenous waste.
Depending on the severity and duration of renal dysfunction, their may be metabolic disturbance like acidosis and hyperkalamia. They may also be changes in the body fluid balance and effects in other body organs. There may be oliguria /anuria which the total cessation of urine production
Acute renal failure is due to deficiency to renal and post-renal. Pre-renal causes are due to deficiency of blood supply. They could be due to hypertension resulting from shock, dehydration or fluid loss and renal vein thrombosis.
Renal causes are due to damage of the kidney itself. This could be as a result of infection pyelonephritis which is an ascending urinary tract infection that has reaches the kidney pelvic. It could be due to acute glomerular.
Post-renal is because of the obstruction of the renal tract. Due to prostate hypertrophy or prostrate cancer, kidney stones, medication that interfere with normal bladder empty.
Other cause include:-Diabetes, hypertension, glomerular nephritis and HIV/AIDS/
Acute renal failure is general diagnosed as a rapid elevation of blood creatinine or blood urea. Serum creatinine is the most widely used blood chemistry test to diagnosis renal function failure. Chronic renal failure is slowly progress of function failure of a period of month or years of the kidney. Chronic renal failure leads to severs illness that requires some form of replacement therapy e.g dialysis.
SIGN AND SYMPYOMS
Initially chronic renal failure may be without any symptoms and is only detected in the increase of serum creatinine. As the kidney function fails the following symptoms are seen:-
Blood pressure increases due to fluid retention.
Urea creatinine and nitrogenous compound accumulate in the blood
Increase in production of red blood cells that leads to anemia
Fluid overload that may range from myoedema to life threatening pulmonary oedema
Hyperphosphataemia, which is due to the decrease in phosphate excretion and hypocalcaemia due to failure of vitamin D activation.
There is metabolic acidosis due to decrease generation of bicarbonate in the kidney.
It all depend on what has caused the acute kidney failure and how severe it has become.The doctor should be able to determine this prescribe to the patient the right medication or point out the the course of action.
There are disease that increases the likelihood of having a kidney failure like high blood pressure, obesity and diabetes. If you have such disease seeks medical attention as soon as possible. Don’t put much pressure to your kidney by what you drink and how much. Kidneys like any other organ tend to be exhausted and this might lead to complication that will eventually cause acute kidney failure. This means drinking enough just to keep your kidney working properly. Be careful on what medication or substance you take. Some of them when used to some extended might cause kidney failure and always have a kidney checkup as often as you can.